Favorable and Unfavorable Conditions

Generally speaking, any situational modifier created by the attacker’s position or tactics applies to the attack roll, while any situational modifier created by the defender’s position, state, or tactics applies to the defender’s Defense. The GM judges what bonuses and penalties apply, using Table: Defense Modifiers and Table: Attack Roll Modifiers as guides.

Table: Defense Modifiers
Circumstance Melee Ranged
Defender sitting or kneeling –2 +21
Defender prone –4 +41
Defender stunned or cowering –22 –22
Defender climbing –22 –22
Defender flat-footed +02 +02
Defender running +02 +22
Defender grappling (attacker not) +02 +03
Defender pinned –44 +04
Defender helpless (such as paralyzed, sleeping, or bound) +02 +02
Defender has cover —–— See Cover —–—
Defender concealed or invisible — See Concealment

1 Does not apply if target is adjacent to attacker. This circumstance may instead improve bonus to Defense granted by cover. See Cover.
2 The defender loses any Dexterity bonus to Defense.
3 Roll randomly to see which grappling combatant the character strikes. That defender loses any Dexterity bonus to Defense.
4 Treat the defender’s Dexterity as 0 (–5 modifier).

Table: Attack Roll Modifiers
Circumstance Melee Ranged
Attacker flanking defender1 +2
Attacker on higher ground +1 +0
Attacker prone –4 –22
Attacker invisible +23 +23

1 A character flanks a defender when he or she has an ally on the opposite side of the defender threatening the defender.
2 Some ranged weapons can’t be used while the attacker is prone.
3 The defender loses any Dexterity bonus to Defense.

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